Massachusetts Statewide Bicycle Transportation Plan

Draft Recommendations (November 1996)

The following draft recommendations of the Massachusetts Statewide Bicycle Transportation Plan were prepared by Vanasse Hangen Brustlin, Inc. who is solely responsible for their content. This draft was developed for public review.

Written comments should be received at VHB at the address below by 5:00 PM Thursday, December 12, 1996. Comments may also be sent via E-mail to: BIKEPLAN@VHB.COM

Prepared for Federal Highway Administration and Massachusetts Highway Department/Bureau of Transportation Planning and Development

Prepared by VHB/Vanasse Hangen Brustlin, Inc., Transportation, Land Development, Environmental Services, 101 Walnut Street, P.O. Box 9151, Watertown, Massachusetts 02272

Program Area: Assessing Bicycle Accommodation on Roadways

OPPORTUNITY/NEED                          RECOMMENDATION                         PROPOSED AGENCIES             

The existing roadway system is the key  1.  Identify traffic flow and roadway    Massachusetts Highway Department         
to establishing a comprehensive         cross sectional characteristics that     (MHD)/Bureau of Transportation Planning  
network of bicycle facilities.  A       affect bicycle travel within an          and Development (BTP&D), Metropolitan    
constant challenge to transportation    existing roadway corridor.               District Commission (MDC), Regional      
planners and engineers is to identify                                            Planning Agencies (RPAs), cities and     
and maintain a network of bicycle       2.  Identify other agencies that use     towns.                                   
facilities.  A methodology to evaluate  these traffic and roadway data for                                                
the accommodation of bicycles on        planning and engineering applications.                                            
existing roadways is a useful step in                                                                                     
identifying opportunities to improve    3.  Institute a data collection and                                               
bicycle travel.                         management program that meets the needs                                           
                                        of the methodology developed as part of                                           
Traffic flow and roadway cross section  this Plan as well as the needs of other                                           
characteristics are the key parameters  agencies.                                                                         
in identifying roadways with low                                                                                          
bicycle suitability.  A comprehensive   4.  Compile existing data in database                                             
data collection program coupled with a  format (inventory file) that meets the                                            
Geographic Information System (GIS)     needs of all involved agencies.                                                   
are useful in applying the methodology                                                                                    
developed as part of this plan.         5.  Tie this database to the                                                      
                                        Commonwealth's existing Geographic                                                
                                        Information System (GIS).                                                         

                                        6.  Institute and fund a long-term                                                
                                        roadway data collection and management                                            
                                        program that meets the bicycle program                                            

It is important to identify roadways    1.  Evaluate bicycle suitability of      MHD/BTP&D, MDC, RPAs, cities and towns   
that are now less suitable for          roadways in important travel corridors.                                           
bicycling and then evaluate treatments                                                                                    
to better accommodate bicycle travel    2.  Identify roadway segments with low                                            
on these roadways.  A methodology to    suitability in corridors of existing                                              
rate the suitability of roadways for    and potential high demand for                                                     
bicycling is a useful step in           bicycling.                                                                        
identifying opportunities to improve                                                                                      
bicycle travel.                         3.  Identify roadway improvements and                                             
                                        other measures, including shoulder                                                
                                        construction/widening, to address the                                             
                                        needs identified in 2.  Improve                                                   
                                        conditions for bicycling within these                                             
                                        travel corridors, using                                                           
                                        state-of-the-practice design.  Where                                              
                                        these improvements are not feasible,                                              
                                        explore other options.                                                            

                                        4.  Prioritize projects and implement                                             
                                        in conjunction with on-going                                                      
                                        construction program.                                                             

Program Area: Trail Development

OPPORTUNITY/NEED                          RECOMMENDATION                         PROPOSED AGENCIES             

This plan provides a basic overview of  In order to have a full understanding                                             
the status of trail development in      of potential trail corridors available                                            
Massachusetts and explores potential    in the Massachusetts, two courses of                                              
opportunities for developing a more     action are recommended.                                                           
extensive network of publicly owned                                              Executive Office of Transportation and   
multi-use trails across the state.      1.  The Commonwealth of Massachusetts    Construction (EOTC) and RPAs             
However, the Commonwealth does not      should conduct a complete statewide                                               
have an up-to-date assessment of        assessment of abandoned rail and other                                            
abandoned rail and other potential      potential corridors.  This study would                                            
corridors or a statewide trails plan.   consist of a detailed inventory,                                                  
Without this information, it is         including map, of abandoned rail                                                  
difficult to weigh the full benefits    corridors and a thorough physical                                                 
of individual trail development         examination to assess the integrity of                                            
projects.                               each corridor (e.g., does the corridor                                            
                                        remain intact or has development                                                  
                                        encroached on the corridor).  The                                                 
                                        inventory should also address corridor                                            
                                        ownership.  A more extensive picture of                                           
                                        the potential resources available for                                             
                                        development of trails for bicycle        Department of Environmental Management   
                                        travel is the end result.  The           (DEM), MDC, Massachusetts Water          
                                        information that a statewide corridor    Resources Authority (MWRA), cities, and  
                                        assessment will provide can help         towns.                                   
                                        determine where important missing links                                           
                                        in a statewide network of multi-use                                               
                                        trails exist and where the state may                                              
                                        want to focus financial resources for                                             
                                        trail development.                                                                

                                        2.  The Commonwealth of Massachusetts                                             
                                        should prepare a State Greenways and                                              
                                        Trails Plan.  This plan will include an                                           
                                        evaluation of routes within the state                                             
                                        that can serve as trails including                                                
                                        river, aqueduct, railroad, canal and                                              
                                        utility corridors.  This plan is                                                  
                                        another resource that will identify                                               
                                        potential trails that can serve bicycle                                           

Rail corridor acquisition               1.  The Commonwealth of Massachusetts    EOTC, DEM, RPAs, local government        
                                        should work to successfully railbank     agencies, Regional Transit Authorities   
                                        all railroad corridors that request      (RTAs), MDC, and MHD.                    
                                        abandonment approval from the Surface                                             
                                        Transportation Board (formerly known as                                           
                                        the Interstate Commerce Commission),                                              
                                        the federal agency that regulates Class                                           
                                        1 railroads.  Once a corridor is                                                  
                                        preserved through railbanking, it can                                             
                                        be evaluated for its usefulness as part                                           
                                        of a statewide multi-use trail network                                            
                                        and eventually developed as a                                                     
                                        rail-trail when appropriate.  Even if a                                           
                                        corridor is determined inappropriate                                              
                                        for development as part of a statewide                                            
                                        network of off-road transportation                                                
                                        trails, the corridor may be appropriate                                           
                                        as a trail for other purposes.                                                    
                                        Ultimately any railbanked corridor is                                             
                                        preserved for future rail use.                                                    

                                        2.  Massachusetts General Law (Chapter                                            
                                        161) passed in 1973 authorizes the                                                
                                        Commonwealth to acquire active and                                                
                                        abandoned railroad corridors and                                                  
                                        requires that any railroad company                                                
                                        intending to sell or dispose of a                                                 
                                        railroad corridor offer it for sale to                                            
                                        the state before it is offered to the                                             
                                        public.  It is recommended that the                                               
                                        Commonwealth act upon such offers when                                            
                                        the corridor has the potential to                                                 
                                        become part of a statewide network of                                             
                                        off-road multi-use trails.                                                        

Massachusetts has in place an           1.  The Commonwealth should continue to  EOTC                                     
effective mechanism intended to         use this general law to preserve the                                              
preserve abandoned railroad corridors   physical integrity of abandoned                                                   
that are not railbanked.                railroad corridors that have the                                                  
Massachusetts General Law (Chapter 40)  potential to become part of a network                                             
passed in 1975 provides that no local   of publicly owned multi-use trails.                                               
building permit can be issued for a                                                                                       
structure to be built on land formerly                                                                                    
used for a railroad corridor without a                                                                                    
public hearing and permission of the                                                                                      
Secretary of Transportation                                                                                               

Rail-with-trail opportunities           2.  The Commonwealth of Massachusetts    EOTC                                     
                                        should explore, with railroad companies                                           
                                        and mass transit agencies, the                                                    
                                        possibility of developing                                                         
                                        rail-with-trails along active rail                                                
                                        corridors where appropriate.                                                      

In order to take advantage of the       3.  The Commonwealth of Massachusetts    EOTC and Executive Office of             
opportunities available for rail-trail  should develop a "How To Guide" for      Environmental Affairs (EOEA)             
development, the issue of a trail       trail development.                                                                
delivery system needs to be addressed.                                                                                    
 Who will own these corridors, where                                                                                      
will the funding for rail-trail                                                                                           
development come from, who will build                                                                                     
the trail and who will mange the                                                                                          
facility?  These questions need to be                                                                                     
answered so that as railroad corridors                                                                                    
become available, an organizational                                                                                       
structure is in place to convert them                                                                                     
into multi-use trails.                                                                                                    

Program Area: Land Use

OPPORTUNITY/NEED                          RECOMMENDATION                         PROPOSED AGENCIES             

Land use planning is accomplished       1.  Review state and federal land use    EOEA-Conservation Services and MEPA      
under a variety of programs.  These     planning programs with the objective of  Unit; Department of Housing and          
include facility and property reuse     improving their support for bicyclists.  Community Development, General Services  
plans, disposition plans, regional                                               Administration, and RPAs                 
plans, local master plans, local        2.  Encourage local governments to                                                
facility system plans, and targeted     undertake such a review relative to                                               
local area plans.  Local area plans     their land use planning laws, programs                                            
include those addressing open space     and actions.                                                                      
and recreation, economic and community                                                                                    
development districts, enterprise       3.  Prepare literature on how land use                                            
zones and downtown revitalization       planning can positively influence                                                 
programs.  In addition, land use        bicycle facility planning.  Incorporate                                           
planning proposals are frequently       in related literature as appropriate.                                             
included in federal, state and locally                                                                                    
mandated environmental review           4.  Distribute the literature through                                             
processes.  All the above programs      existing state agencies and                                                       
include requirements, guidelines, and   associations such as the Massachusetts                                            
"best practice" procedures.  Some       Municipal Association, the                                                        
include mention of bicycles and         Massachusetts Federation of Planning                                              
bicycle facilities, while others do     and Appeals Boards, the Massachusetts                                             
not.  All appropriate programs that     Planning Directors Association, and                                               
deal with land use planning should be   regional planning agencies.  Notices                                              
reviewed with the goal of giving        and articles can be incorporated in the                                           
proper recognition to bicycle facility  regular publications of these                                                     
issues and needs.  Consideration        organizations as well.                                                            
should be given to introducing or                                                                                         
amending specific provisions that                                                                                         
recognize the role of bicycles in                                                                                         
supporting important social objectives                                                                                    
in land use, transportation, economic                                                                                     
development, energy savings, health                                                                                       
and fitness, and recreation.                                                                                              

Transportation Mangement Associations   1.  Find successful examples where       EOTC, MHD/BTP&D, RPAs, CARAVAN, and      
(TMAs) and other business partnerships  bicycle facilities have been installed   Transportation Management Associations   
that deal with transportation are       in downtowns and other commercial areas  (TMAs)                                   
increasing in numbers in                and office and industrial parks.                                                  
Massachusetts.  These voluntary         Properly publicize these examples with                                            
partnerships of businesses have         appropriate media.                                                                
considerable resources and can often                                             Department of Housing and Community      
tap public as well as private funds to  2.  Distribute the literature to         Development.                             
undertake programs with broad benefits  existing TMAs and business partnerships                                           
to members and the public.  TMAs are    in Massachusetts.  Follow-up this                                                 
created explicitly to deal with         distribution with an offer to send                                                
transportation problems.  Business      materials to interested heads of TMAs                                             
partnerships are created to deal with   and business partnerships.               RPAs and TMAs                            
a number of issues that often include                                                                                     
transportation.  TMAs have created bus  3.  Contact and work with public                                                  
services, parking and access roads.     officials that have programs that TMA                                             
Business partnerships have created      and business partnerships use, e.g.,                                              
parking and access improvements.  Both  highway and transit matching fund                                                 
types of organization have the          programs and downtown revitalization                                              
potential to create bicycle             and economic development programs.                                                
facilities.  For example a system of    Primary contacts are the Mass. Highway                                            
bicycle paths and related bicycle       Department, Executive Office of          MHD/BTP&D, RPAs, and TMAs                
parking facilities could be created in  Transportation and Construction, Mass.                                            
an industrial or office park or area.   Department of Housing and Community                                               
Bicycle racks could be installed in     Development, and Mass. Office of                                                  
various strategic locations in          Business Development.                                                             
downtown or commercial areas through                                                                                      
the efforts of business partnerships.   4.  Present the material at various                                               
Two advantages these organizations      regular meetings of TMA and business                                              
offer is that they have ready access    partnership officials, and continue a                                             
to business funding, which can be       program of public education, focused on                                           
substantial in the case of large        how business partnerships and TMAs can                                            
corporations, and they are led by       promote the creation of bicycle                                                   
business leaders, who are often very    facilities, and the benefits of these                                             
influential in their communities.       facilities for the businesses and their                                           
Bicycle facilities, because they are    employees.                                                                        
relatively low in cost, and are                                                                                           
relatively visible and attractive, may                                                                                    
have a special appeal to business                                                                                         
leaders as progressive, effective and                                                                                     
responsible investments.                                                                                                  

Program Area: Zoning

OPPORTUNITY/NEED                          RECOMMENDATION                         PROPOSED AGENCIES             

Land use development is controlled      1.  Prepare model zoning and             EOEA, RPAs, Department of Housing and    
most firmly at the local level.         subdivision provisions which require     Community Development                    
Zoning and other land use controls      appropriate bicycle features in                                                   
such as subdivision regulation are      suitable projects (such as bicycle                                                
enforced by local officials,            racks at retail stores), and which                                                
frequently involving extensive review   provide the opportunity to negotiate                                              
of projects.  Under zoning, the review  for additional bicycle facilities (such                                           
process is becoming even more           as lockers, showers and clothes                                                   
extensive.  For example, site plan      changing rooms at office parks, and                                               
review and special permit requirements  bicycle paths at industrial parks).                                               
allow for a negotiation process which   Negotiation incentives could include                                              
could include bicycle facilities where  such items as increased allowable                                                 
appropriate.  Bicycle parking           densities, or reduced dimensional                                                 
facilities can also be required under   requirements such as road frontage or                                             
general parking provisions for any      building setbacks and heights.                                                    
appropriate land use such as                                                                                              
commercial and industrial               2.  Package model provisions in                                                   
developments.  More extensive           engaging materials and formats and                                                
facilities, such as lockers, showers,   distribute to local and regional                                                  
and changing rooms, can be negotiated   officials throughout the state.  Use                                              
for a project, as can paths or lanes    both direct mailing and mailings to                                               
for bicycles as part of proposed        associations of local and regional                                                
developments under review.              officials.                                                                        
Subdivision regulations and other                                                                                         
non-zoning land use controls can also   3.  Convene a conference of local and                                             
include provisions requiring bicycle    regional planning, zoning and                                                     
facilities, along with design           subdivision review officials, and                                                 
standards for these facilities.  Model  provide examples of successful bicycle                                            
bylaws can be drawn from current        facility improvements created through                                             
experience for the purpose of           local zoning, subdivision and other                                               
facilitating the process for            regulations.                                                                      
municipalities wishing to enact                                                                                           
pro-bicycle regulations.                4.  Continue a program of public                                                  
                                        education, focused on how local                                                   
                                        government can require and promote the                                            
                                        creation of bicycle facilities.                                                   

Program Area: Bicyclist Education

OPPORTUNITY/NEED                          RECOMMENDATION                         PROPOSED AGENCIES             

A variety of curriculums and            1.  Implement a comprehensive,           Department of Education, Massachusetts   
approaches are being used to educate    statewide school-based bicycle safety    Department of Public Health (MDPH).      
children in the Commonwealth about      education program for children.  A       Governor's Highway Safety Bureau (GHSB)  
bicycle safety and the importance of    bicycle safety education program         Community Traffic Safety Programs        
helmet use. They include school         integrated into school health and/or     (CTSPs), school PTSAs, local health      
assemblies, videos, bicycle rodeos,     physical education curriculums has the   departments and prevention centers,      
public service announcements (PSAs),    greatest potential for reaching all      hospitals, HMOs, and police              
helmet promotion programs, and various  Massachusetts children. For  maximum     departments.                             
safety materials such as posters and    effectiveness, the program should                                                 
fliers. There is a need, however, for   include on-bicycle as well as classroom                                           
a more consistent and comprehensive     instruction. It would be part of a                                                
educational effort, reaching a greater  comprehensive traffic safety education                                            
number of children.                     program that would begin in the primary                                           
                                        grades with school bus and pedestrian                                             
There is also a need to educate         safety and progress through bicycle                                               
teenage and adult bicyclists.           safety education for older elementary                                             
Education efforts here should focus on  and middle school students to driver's                                            
following the rules of the road when    education for teenagers.                                                          
riding in traffic, being visible, and                                                                                     
use of appropriate safety equipment                                                                                       
including helmets.                                                                                                        

                                        2.  Develop and evaluate a model         GHSB, CTSPs, PTSAs, and bicycle          
                                        program for adult bicyclist safety       organizations                            
                                        training and education.  A variety of                                             
                                        efforts will likely be needed to reach                                            
                                        adult bicyclists. Possible approaches                                             
                                        include distribution of safety                                                    
                                        materials at bicycle shops, "bicycle to                                           
                                        work" and "family bicycle ride" events                                            
                                        that also provide opportunities for                                               
                                        education, inclusion of bicycle safety                                            
                                        messages on local bicycle maps,                                                   
                                        articles or letters to local                                                      
                                        newspapers, involvement of local                                                  
                                        bicycle clubs, etc. Local law                                                     
                                        enforcement officers can also play a                                              
                                        role in educating (and motivating)                                                
                                        adult bicyclists.  A bicyclist                                                    
                                        education campaign directed at adults                                             
                                        would be tied to a larger motorist                                                
                                        education and public awareness                                                    
                                        campaign, as well as to greater                                                   
                                        enforcement of traffic laws for                                                   
                                        bicyclists and motorists. One                                                     
                                        recommendation would thus be to develop                                           
                                        and evaluate the effectiveness of a                                               
                                        model program at the local level for                                              
                                        improving the skills and riding                                                   
                                        practices of adult bicyclists.                                                    

Program Area: Motorist Education

OPPORTUNITY/NEED                          RECOMMENDATION                         PROPOSED AGENCIES             

Almost every person interviewed         1.  Develop a "Share the Road"           MHD, GHSB, Massachusetts Bicycle Safety  
mentioned that it is often difficult    campaign.  Perhaps one of the most       Alliance (MBSA), Registry of Motor       
to ride a bicycle in Massachusetts due  effective recommendations that can be    Vehicles (RMV) and private sector        
to the aggressive attitudes of many     made is to increase motorist education                                            
motorists. There is a need to educate   through a "share the road" campaign.                                              
motorists in ways to share the road     Such a campaign could be started at the                                           
with bicyclists                         state level and then extended to                                                  
                                        communities. PSAs, brochures,                                                     
                                        billboards and a variety of other media                                           
                                        could be used to carry out the                                                    
                                        campaign. This could be centrally                                                 
                                        organized by the Massachusetts Bicycle                                            
                                        Safety Alliance (MBSA) so that many                                               
                                        state and local agencies and coalitions                                           
                                        could join. Support from television and                                           
                                        radio would be needed, and use of                                                 
                                        incentives should be considered.                                                  

                                        2.  Educate motorists through the                                                 
                                        driver license process and driver                                                 
                                        training programs.  Another method of                                             
                                        reaching motorists is through                                                     
                                        information contained in driver's                                                 
                                        license manuals and through                                                       
                                        incorporating bicycle safety and                                                  
                                        "share-the-road" messages into                                                    
                                        statewide driver education training.                                              
                                        Both the manual and the training should                                           
                                        include questions relating to bicycling                                           
                                        as well as more specific information on                                           
                                        operating a motor vehicle on roadways                                             
                                        with bicycles. Reminders in the form of                                           
                                        posters or brochures can also be placed                                           
                                        in the information centers at RMV                                                 
                                        offices.  Materials could be included                                             
                                        with any mailings from the RMV.                                                   

                                        3.  Enforce traffic laws.  Enforcement   Police departments                       
                                        of traffic laws will lead to greater                                              
                                        understanding of the laws by motorists.                                           

Program Area: Bicycle Helmet Use

OPPORTUNITY/NEED                          RECOMMENDATION                         PROPOSED AGENCIES             

Even though the Massachusetts bicycle   1.  Continue to promote public           GHSB, MDPH, Massachusetts Bicycle        
helmet law for children ages 12 and     awareness and acceptance of the current  Safety Alliance (MBSA), the Department   
under has had widespread positive       statewide helmet use law.  When the      of Education, and others.                
impact, some parents and children       initial helmet law was passed, little                                             
remain unaware of the law, thus         funding was made available for                                                    
reducing its overall effectiveness in   promoting public awareness and                                                    
preventing deaths and reducing head     acceptance of the law. Despite limited                                            
injuries from bicycle crashes. There    funds, GHSB, the Massachusetts                                                    
is a need for continued and expanded    Department of Public Health, and the                                              
education for children as well as       Massachusetts Bicycle Safety Alliance                                             
their parents about the state's         have all led active campaigns to                                                  
bicycle helmet law. In addition, there  promote helmet use and make helmets                                               
is a need to continue to promote        more available and affordable  to                                                 
helmet use among bicyclists of all      children. These efforts will need to be                                           
ages.                                   continued and even expanded in the                                                
                                        future, as many children still are not                                            
An important component of any law is    being protected by helmets. Educating                                             
enforcement. Currently the              parents about the importance of their                                             
Massachusetts bicycle helmet law        child always wearing a helmet when                                                
carries no penalty for non-compliance.  riding should be a key component to the                                           
For greatest impact, the law needs to   campaign. Pediatricians and other                                                 
incorporate some penalty and provide    medical professionals can assist in the                                           
law enforcement officers some options   effort.                                                                           
for enforcement.                                                                                                          
                                        2.  Promote helmet use among bicyclists                                           
                                        of all ages.  The majority of                                                     
                                        bicyclists injured and killed in                                                  
                                        traffic collisions are teenagers or                                               
                                        adults, and helmets can protect these                                             
                                        riders as well. Efforts to promote the                                            
                                        voluntary use of helmets by bicyclists                                            
                                        not currently covered by the statewide                                            
                                        helmet law should be expanded. This                                               
                                        might include, for example, developing                                            
                                        posters and fliers that target adult                                              
                                        riders, working with colleges and                                                 
                                        universities to promote helmet use                                                
                                        among students as well as staff and                                               
                                        faculty, and working with bicycle shops                                           
                                        to make available a greater variety of                                            
                                        low-cost helmets.                                                                 

                                        3. Work to strengthen the state helmet                                            
                                        law.  Although the current law has had                                            
                                        a significant positive impact on                                                  
                                        children's wearing of bicycle helmets,                                            
                                        it would be improved if it included                                               
                                        some penalty for non-compliance.                                                  

Program Area: Enforcement

OPPORTUNITY/NEED                          RECOMMENDATION                         PROPOSED AGENCIES             

There is a need for enforcement of      1.  Provide training to law enforcement  GHSB, MDPH, State Police; and local      
rules-of-the-road when bicycles and     officers. State and local law            police departments and planning          
motor vehicles are operating on the     enforcement agencies should be           agencies.                                
same or intersecting roadways and       encouraged to incorporate bicycle                                                 
other facilities. From the variety of   enforcement into their training and                                               
people interviewed, it appears that     education programs. Programs should                                               
little bicycle enforcement is being     address the rights and responsibilities                                           
done. Bicycle enforcement pertains not  of both bicyclists and motorists as                                               
only to the rules-of-the-road           road users, along with effective                                                  
maneuvers made by cyclists, but also    approaches for bicycle law enforcement.                                           
to the way motorists share the road     Training videos such as the helmet                                                
with cyclists. Helmet use by child      video produced by the Newton Police                                               
bicyclists is another enforcement       Department (with GHSB funding) or the                                             
issue.                                  League of American Bicyclist's "The Law                                           
                                        is for All" video can help to educate                                             
The vast majority of bicycle law        as well as motivate law enforcement                                               
enforcement has to be done at the       officers.                                                                         
local level and requires commitment by                                                                                    
community law enforcement.  There is a  2.  Educate bicyclists about their                                                
need for educating law enforcement      responsibilities.  Along with                                                     
authorities, including State Police,    education, law enforcement can also                                               
about the need for bicycle law          play an important role in educating                                               
enforcement as well as the rights of    bicyclists about their responsibilities                                           
bicyclists using the roadway.           as road users. Bicyclists need to feel                                            
                                        that it is important for them to "do                                              
                                        the right thing," i.e., obey traffic                                              

                                        3.  Review current status of                                                      
                                        Massachusetts General Laws pertaining                                             
                                        to bicycling. If needed, push for                                                 
                                        changes in the statutes to make them                                              
                                        easier and more compelling to enforce.                                            
                                        Develop information sheets that                                                   
                                        summarize and clarify the law for                                                 
                                        motorists and bicyclists as well as law                                           
                                        enforcement officers. Publicize the                                               
                                        fact that the $20 fine designated for                                             
                                        bicycle offenses is retained by the                                               
                                        local jurisdiction for bicycle safety                                             
                                        activities. Consider waiving any fine                                             
                                        for bicyclists who complete an                                                    
                                        Effective Cycling or similar course.                                              

                                        1.  Promote police-on-bicycles           GHSB, MDPH, State Police; and local      
                                        programs.  The concept of                police departments and planning          
                                        police-on-bicycles seems to be growing   agencies.                                
                                        in popularity in Massachusetts. More                                              
                                        communities have established police                                               
                                        bicycle units.  The Massachusetts State                                           
                                        Police have police officers on                                                    
                                        bicycles, as does every town on the                                               
                                        Cape. Police-on-bicycles can be a very                                            
                                        effective way to enforce                                                          
                                        rules-of-the-road for both bicyclists                                             
                                        and motorists. They may also help to                                              
                                        support community policing activities.                                            

                                        2.  Involve local police in bicycle                                               
                                        facility planning. A final                                                        
                                        recommendation is to involve local                                                
                                        police whenever bicycle facility                                                  
                                        planning is being done within a                                                   
                                        community. Local officers tend to know                                            
                                        where bicycle-motor vehicle crashes                                               
                                        occur and the underlying conditions,                                              
                                        and are thus in a position to make                                                
                                        informed comments regarding facilities.                                           
                                        Involving local police in bicycle                                                 
                                        facility planning can also help educate                                           
                                        and motivate the officers concerning                                              
                                        bicyclist needs and safety.                                                       

Program Area: Use of Bicycle Crash and Injury Data

OPPORTUNITY/NEED                          RECOMMENDATION                         PROPOSED AGENCIES             

Bicycle injury and bicycle-motor        1. Strengthen statewide reporting of     MHD/BTP&D, State Police, local police,   
vehicle crash data should be examined   bicycle-motor vehicle crashes.  A        MDPH, RMV, and GHSB.                     
at both the state and local levels to   uniform crash report form is used                                                 
identify needs and help guide           statewide. Although there is known                                                
countermeasure and program              underreporting of single vehicle                                                  
development. The data may also be used  bicycle crashes, this is true in every                                            
for program evaluation.                 state. It is recommended that periodic                                            
                                        contact be made with police agencies to                                           
                                        maintain consistency of bicycle crash                                             

                                        2. Track bicycle crashes.  It is                                                  
                                        recommended that the MHD                                                          
                                        Bicycle-Pedestrian Program staff obtain                                           
                                        annual summaries of bicycle crashes                                               
                                        occurring in the state and examine the                                            
                                        data to detect trends, new problems,                                              
                                        and possible countermeasures. The same                                            
                                        process could be applied to certain                                               
                                        local jurisdictions where there is                                                
                                        considerable bicycling.  Encourage                                                
                                        local agencies to use crash typing                                                
                                        techniques to further enrich the data.                                            

                                        3. Supplement crash data with hospital                                            
                                        injury data. Highway departments have                                             
                                        traditionally relied on police-reported                                           
                                        motor vehicle crash data for                                                      
                                        information on the safety of their                                                
                                        roadways. However, a majority of                                                  
                                        bicyclists' injuries result from falls                                            
                                        or other non-collisions that do not                                               
                                        involve a motor vehicle. To better                                                
                                        understand the safety needs of these                                              
                                        bicyclists, it is recommended that                                                
                                        hospital discharge data be examined and                                           
                                        tracked along with the statewide crash                                            
                                        data. Hospital data can also be used to                                           
                                        evaluate the effectiveness of state and                                           
                                        local safety and helmet promotion                                                 

                                        1.  Implement GIS techniques.            MHD/BTP&D, State Police, local police,   
                                        Massachusetts Highway Department         MDPH, RMV, and GHSB.                     
                                        personnel indicate that the state level                                           
                                        system is somewhat antiquated and in                                              
                                        the process of being overhauled.                                                  
                                        Personnel are also interested in using                                            
                                        GIS techniques with the available data.                                           
                                        Bicycle program staff are encouraged to                                           
                                        use the GIS system to input data                                                  
                                        regarding bicycle crash locations,                                                
                                        facilities, and other kinds of data.                                              

                                        2.  Provide training related to crash                                             
                                        reconstruction and typology.                                                      

Program Area: Bicyclist Safety: Communication and Networking

OPPORTUNITY/NEED                          RECOMMENDATION                         PROPOSED AGENCIES             

Currently there are many "players"      1.  Update and widely disseminate        GHSB, MDPH, MBSA, and MHD/BTP&D          
engaged in bicycle safety education     bicycle safety resource kit. This kit                                             
and enforcement activities in           was developed by MDPH.  The update                                                
Massachusetts. They include the         should include the latest information                                             
Governor's Highway Safety Bureau,       on key agencies, organizations, and                                               
Massachusetts Department of Public      individuals engaged in bicycle safety                                             
Health / Injury Prevention and Control  activities, and be made available                                                 
Program, the Bicycle Safety Alliance,   "on-line" so that it can be easily                                                
and a variety of local agencies and     modified and expanded.                                                            
programs including the Boston                                                                                             
Childhood Injury Prevention Program,    2.  Establish an on-line user group for                                           
two SAFE KIDS coalitions, the           quick and easy sharing of bicycle                                                 
Lexington Bicycle Safety Program,       safety information.  THE GHSB is                                                  
Kiwanis, and others.                    developing a Web site in Federal fiscal                                           
                                        year 1997 that will include bicycle                                               
There is clearly a need to facilitate   safety information.  The user group                                               
timely communication and sharing among  might be modeled after the Bicycle                                                
these various groups -- to benefit      Coalition of Massachusetts' on-line                                               
from each other's experiences and       group, and used for (a) describing new                                            
expertise as well as to pool resources  programs, activities or materials, (b)                                            
and talents. The Bicycle Safety         announcing upcoming meetings,                                                     
Alliance has fulfilled this role in     conferences, or other events of                                                   
the past, but additional resources are  interest, (c) providing updates on                                                
needed to expand its activities.        pertinent legislation, (d) posing                                                 
                                        questions for others in the group to                                              
                                        answer, (e) identifying funding                                                   
                                        opportunities, (f) seeking                                                        
                                        collaborators, etc.                                                               

                                        3.  Host an annual bicycle safety                                                 
                                        conference. The assumption here is that                                           
                                        nothing is more effective than                                                    
                                        "face-to-face" networking and sharing                                             
                                        of ideas and programs.                                                            

Program Area: Bicyclist Safety: Program Coordination and Leadership

OPPORTUNITY/NEED                          RECOMMENDATION                         PROPOSED AGENCIES             

Massachusetts is distinct from other    1.  Several approaches could be taken    Massachusetts General Court, Governor's  
states in that its bicycle coordinator  to improve overall program coordination  Office, GHSB, MDPH, MBSA, and MHD/BTP&D  
is not directly responsible for safety  and leadership. One approach might be                                             
programming. This is because the        to formalize and expand the role                                                  
Massachusetts Highway Department has    already being played by the                                                       
traditionally focused its attention on  Massachusetts Bicycle Safety Alliance.                                            
roadway and facility issues, while      The Alliance should have a paid                                                   
education and safety issues have been   executive director able to work                                                   
the province of GHSB and MDPH. This     full-time on bicycle safety issues.                                               
has contributed to the situation where  This person would be responsible for                                              
there is not a single focal point for   coordinating bicycle safety activities                                            
bicycle safety education and            by the Massachusetts Highway                                                      
enforcement activities in the state.    Department, Governor's Highway Safety                                             
More importantly, there is not an       Bureau, and Department of Public                                                  
advocate at the state level who is      Health, and would provide overall                                                 
responsible solely for bicycle safety.  leadership, direction, and continuity                                             
At both the Governor's Highway Safety   to the program.                                                                   
Bureau (GHSB) and the Massachusetts                                                                                       
Department of Public Health (MDPH),                                                                                       
bicycle safety programming must                                                                                           
"compete" with other program areas:                                                                                       
pedestrian safety, alcohol, safety                                                                                        
restraint programs, etc. at GHSB;                                                                                         
violence prevention, teen pregnancy,                                                                                      
child abuse prevention, etc. at MDPH.                                                                                     
There is a need for a more defined                                                                                        
focal point for the state's bicycle                                                                                       
safety activities, with a committed                                                                                       
leadership that can provide longevity                                                                                     
and continuity to its myriad of                                                                                           
bicycle safety activities.                                                                                                

Program Area: Bicycle Facility Design

OPPORTUNITY/NEED                          RECOMMENDATION                         PROPOSED AGENCIES             

There is a need to revise/clarify the   1.  Revise MGL Chapter 90E:  Bikeways    Massachusetts General Court.             
definitions of bicycle facilities       and other Chapters of the MGL where                                               
contained in the Massachusetts General  appropriate, as described below:                                                  
Laws (MGL) to recognize multi-use.                                                                                        
The MGL defines a "bike path" as "a     a.  Incorporate in Chapter 90E the                                                
route for the exclusive use of          following definition from the AASHTO                                              
bicycles separated by grade or other    guide:                                                                            
physical barrier from motor traffic."                                                                                     
This definition does not recognize the  Bikeway - Any road, path, or way which                                            
reality that these paths are used by    in some manner is specifically                                                    
pedestrians, people in wheelchairs,     designated as being open to bicycle                                               
in-line skaters, and others not on      travel, regardless of whether such                                                
bicycles.  Failure to recognize the     facilities are designated for the                                                 
multi-use character of these paths can  exclusive use of bicycles or are to be                                            
lead to design and operational          shared with other transportation modes.                                           
                                        b.  Revise other definitions as needed                                            
                                        to be consistent with expanded                                                    
                                        definition of a bikeway.                                                          

                                        c.  Expand definition of "public way"                                             
                                        to include multi-use paths and other                                              
                                        bikeways that are not part of a roadway                                           

There is a need for uniform guidance    2.  Continue to recognize the Guide for  MHD/BTP&D and other state and local      
in the design of bicycle facilities.    the Development of Bicycle Facilities    agencies                                 
                                        (AASHTO, 1991) as "the primary design                                             
                                        reference for designing bikeways".                                                
                                        This document is in the process of                                                
                                        being revised.  When the new Guide is                                             
                                        available, obtain copies and distribute                                           
                                        to all town/city engineers and public                                             
                                        works departments, as was done with the                                           
                                        1991 Guide.                                                                       

                                        3.  Develop additional bicycle facility  MHD/BTP&D                                
                                        design guidance.                                                                  

The revised MassHighway Design Manual,  MHD to provide additional design         MHD/BTP&D, cities, and towns             
in draft form at the time of this       guidance as follows:                                                              
writing, contains the following                                                                                           
provision:                              1.  Clarify the minimum and preferred                                             
                                        bicycle accommodation in terms of the                                             
12.1.3 Shared Roadways.  Shared         total width of the outside lane                                                   
roadways are highways where a bicycle   including shoulder and offset.  Offsets                                           
lane is not designated, but where       are recommended from curbs as well as                                             
bicycles are legally allowed to use     guard rails, walls, etc.                                                          
the highway.  To accommodate bicycles,                                                                                    
at least 0.75 meters (2.46 feet), or    2.  Provide the option of a 3.25 meter                                            
preferably 1.25 meters (4.1 feet) of    (10.67 foot) travel lane in combination                                           
usable shoulder must be paved.          with a 1.25 meter (4.1 foot) shoulder                                             
                                        as minimum bicycle accommodation.                                                 
If these accommodations for bicycles                                                                                      
can not be provided, a design waiver    3.  Recommend 1.75 meter (5.74 foot)                                              
request must be submitted at the 25%    usable paved shoulder where motor                                                 
stage.                                  vehicle speeds are greater than 80                                                
                                        kilometers per hour (50 miles per hour)                                           
There is a need to clarify the above                                                                                      
guidance to include offsets where       4.  Provide direction on the process                                              
required and the width of the adjacent  for granting design waivers when the                                              
travel lane.  This clarification        minimum or preferred bicycle                                                      
should prescribe the minimum and        accommodation is not provided.  This                                              
preferred bicycle accommodation in      additional direction should recognize                                             
terms of the total width of the         environmental and right-of-way                                                    
outside lane including shoulder and     constraints and seek to strike a                                                  
offset as this is the total lateral     balance when bicycle related                                                      
space shared by a bicycle and motor     improvements are clearly advancing                                                
vehicle. Where an offset is not         public safety goals and improving                                                 
required, minimum bicycle               environmental quality.  It may be                                                 
accommodation is 4.5 meters (14.76      possible to increase the lateral space                                            
feet) and preferred accommodation is    available to the motorist and bicyclist                                           
5.0 meters (16.4 feet).  Where an       with minimal impact on adjacent                                                   
offset is required, minimum bicycle     properties.  The MHD Bicycle and                                                  
accommodation is 5.0 meters (16.4       Pedestrian Program staff should provide                                           
feet) and preferred accommodation is    support to MHD Districts when projects                                            
5.5 meters (18.04 feet).                that would improve on-road bicycle                                                
                                        accommodation enter the design waiver                                             
Direction is also needed on the         process.  MHD should seek to build                                                
process for granting design waivers     consensus among the various                                                       
when the minimum or preferred bicycle   stakeholders using a mediation                                                    
accommodation is not provided.          approach.                                                                         

Most actuated traffic signal systems    1.  The Massachusetts Highway            MHD/BTP&D, MDC, cities, towns, and       
in the Commonwealth do not detect       Department (MHD) and others should       other appropriate agencies               
bicycles.  When no motor vehicles are   adopt standards for the detection of                                              
present at a leg of an intersection     bicycles by actuated traffic signal                                               
where a bicyclist is waiting, the       systems.                                                                          
traffic signal is not actuated.  The                                             MHD/BTP&D, municipalities, and other     
bicyclist choices are to wait for a     2.  Bicycle detection should be          agencies who own and operate traffic     
motor vehicle to arrive to actuate the  specified in new and retrofit projects   signals on public ways in the            
signal or to run the light.  This       involving actuated traffic signal        Commonwealth.                            
situation is inconsistent with          systems, based on standards to be                                                 
Massachusetts General Laws which        developed by MHD.                        MHD/BTP&D, municipalities, and other     
recognize bicycles as vehicles and                                               agencies who own and operate traffic     
afford bicyclists the same rights as    3.  Where warranted, existing actuated   signals on public ways in the            
motorists.                              traffic signal systems should be         Commonwealth.                            
                                        redesigned to detect bicycles.  These                                             
                                        designs should be based on standards to                                           
                                        be adopted by MHD.                                                                

The AASHTO Guide notes that bridges     4.  Provide appropriate treatments to    MHD/BTP&D, MDC, local Departments of     
can serve an important function by      improve bicycle travel across bridges.   Public Works, and other agencies with    
providing bicycle access across         Such treatments may initially include    bridge design/construction/maintenance   
barriers.  Some bridge features,        signage to alert bicyclists to surface   responsibility.                          
however, may be unsuitable for          conditions.  Other longer term                                                    
bicyclists; these are, according to     treatments may include:  retrofitting                                             
AASHTO, "open grated metal decks found  existing bridges to improve surface                                               
on many movable spans" and "certain     conditions for bicycling; and bridge                                              
types of expansion joints that may      construction and reconstruction                                                   
cause bicycle steering difficulties."   projects that incorporate surfaces more                                           
                                        compatible with bicycle travel,                                                   
                                        specifically in bicycle travel paths,                                             
                                        and provision of greater operating                                                

Program Area: Construction and Maintenance Practices

OPPORTUNITY/NEED                          RECOMMENDATION                         PROPOSED AGENCIES             

Bicycles need to be safely              1.  Develop bicycle oriented             MHD, Massachusetts Water Resources       
accommodated in construction areas.     construction checklists, which address   Agency, utility companies, cities and    
                                        the following items:                     towns, state and local police, bicycle   
                                        smooth travel path and adequate lane     organizations                            
                                        bicycle consideration in detour route                                             
                                        selection and construction area signage                                           
                                        physical barriers from debris                                                     
                                        metal trench plate surface treatment                                              
                                        and asphalt ramping                                                               
                                        shim or ramp raised catch basins                                                  
                                        restrict access to off-road facilities                                            
                                        during construction.                                                              

                                        2.  Develop, implement, and enforce                                               
                                        utility practices, such as jointless                                              
                                        patches, that consider bicycles                                                   

                                        3.  Train construction personnel about                                            
                                        the needs of bicyclists.                                                          

                                        4.  Train utility companies and                                                   
                                        designers to consider bicycles in                                                 
                                        utility placement.  Provide standard                                              
                                        roadway repair practices.  Update                                                 
                                        standard specifications.  Foster                                                  
                                        partnering between utility companies,                                             
                                        planners and designers in all stages of                                           
                                        project design.                                                                   

                                        5.  Provide public training and                                                   
                                        information on bicycling in                                                       
                                        construction areas.                                                               

Provide appropriate signage and         1.  Use wet skid-resistant  pavement     MHD, MDC, other state agencies, cities,  
striping during construction and as     markings.  Consider bicyclists in the    towns, and others involved in signage    
part of ongoing maintenance.            selection and location of signage.       and striping.                            

                                        2.  Develop guidance for maintenace and                                           
                                        replacement of signage and striping.                                              
                                        Provide periodic evaluation.                                                      

The needs of bicyclists should be       3.  Develop standards for evaluating     State, local, and other roadway/trail    
accommodated in sweeping, drainage,     the recurring needs for sweeping and     maintenance agencies.                    
vegetation, and winter maintenance      implement accordingly.  More frequent                                             
policies and practices.                 sweeping may be required depending on                                             
                                        bicycle volumes and local conditions.                                             

                                        4.  Modify current grate replacement                                              
                                        program to incorporate bicycle-safe                                               
                                        grates.  Ensure proper cleaning of                                                
                                        catch basins to avoid the formation of                                            
                                        standing water and surface                                                        

                                        5.  Modify mowing programs to include                                             
                                        consideration of bicyclist sight line                                             
                                        requirements, especially at                                                       
                                        intersections with off-road facilities.                                           

                                        6.  Provide proper vertical and                                                   
                                        horizontal clearances to ensure safe                                              
                                        bicycle passage.  Provide proper                                                  
                                        trimming of vegetation to ensure                                                  
                                        visibility of signage, proper sight                                               
                                        lines, and safe/secure areas for users.                                           

                                        7. Identify problem areas and implement                                           
                                        preventive measures, such as root                                                 
                                        barriers, to limit root damage to trail                                           

                                        1.  Address bicycle needs in snow/ice    State, local, and other roadway/trail    
                                        removal policies and practices.          agencies.                                

Improved railroad crossings can better  2.  Train railroad and other personnel   Railroads, state and local roadway       
accommodate bicycles.                   to consider bicycle use in               agencies                                 
                                        design/maintenace of railroad                                                     
                                        crossings.  Provide design guidance on                                            
                                        railroad crossing treatments to                                                   
                                        accommodate bicycles.                                                             

Provide for the safety of trail users   3.  Where warranted, provide trail       DEM, MDC, cities and towns               
during hours of darkness.               lighting.                                                                         

Provide mechanisms for bicyclists to    4.  Establish a dedicated hotline for    State and local roadway agencies, and    
report roadway and trail maintenance    reporting maintenace needs.              bicycle organizations                    
                                        5.  Establish a clearinghouse to                                                  
                                        receive, evaluate and implement                                                   
                                        suggested improvements.  Develop a                                                
                                        tracking system.                                                                  

Program Area: Tourism

OPPORTUNITY/NEED                          RECOMMENDATION                         PROPOSED AGENCIES             

Bicycle tourism has been shown to be a  1.  Update, print and distribute State   MOTT, RTCs, the tourism industry,        
source of substantial revenue in        Bicycle Map.                             cities, towns, chambers of commerce,     
several states.  The industry is in                                              and others.                              
the developing stages in                2.  Develop a multipage brochure as a                                             
Massachusetts, and there are a few      companion piece to the State Bicycle                                              
companies in the state which are        Map that is oriented to the needs and                                             
realizing part of the business          interests of the bicycle tourist.  The                                            
potential of bicycling.  Other          brochure could include information on                                             
businesses outside the state are also   lodging, bicycle attractions and tour                                             
involved in bicycle tourism in          operators in each region, and bicycling                                           
Massachusetts.  Developing a stronger   safety.  It could also incorporate                                                
bicycle tourism business within the     information already available from                                                
state would increase revenues realized  several regional tourist councils                                                 
by the Commonwealth.                    (RTCs) on bicycling and other outdoor                                             
                                        activities in their region.                                                       
State tourism promotion offices in      Massachusetts geographically is a                                                 
other states have developed materials,  relatively small state, and different                                             
programs and organizations for          regions can be visited during the time                                            
marketing bicycling attractions         period of a typical vacation.  This                                               
throughout the state.  Other states     publication could highlight the major                                             
have also developed a non-profit        bicycling attractions in the state,                                               
organization, sponsored by businesses   without requiring a vacationer to                                                 
and other organizations, which          contact several separate RTCs for                                                 
promotes bicycling and tourism in the   information.                                                                      
state.  The Massachusetts Office of                                                                                       
Travel and Tourism (MOTT) can play a    3.  Broaden contacts with appropriate                                             
prominent role in increasing the        tourism representatives to focus on                                               
visibility of Massachusetts as a        bicycle tourism and potential for                                                 
bicycle tourism destination and in      further organization.                                                             
capturing the revenue that it offers.                                                                                     
These promotion efforts could attract   4. Continue to feature bicycling in                                               
funding from bicycle shops, tour        existing tourism promotions and                                                   
operators, lodging, and other           publications, and to highlight                                                    
businesses which stand to gain from     bicycling in regional tourism                                                     
more bicycle tourists coming to         activities.                                                                       

Program Area: Bicycle Promotion

OPPORTUNITY/NEED                          RECOMMENDATION                         PROPOSED AGENCIES             

Bicycling is a highly efficient means   The promotion of bicycling entails a     MHD, other state agencies with           
of transportation, as well as a         comprehensive program that addresses     transportation and air quality           
healthy, enjoyable activity for people  facility needs, safety education and     responsibiliities, CARAVAN, the          
of all ages. The National Bicycling     law enforcement, as well as              transportation management associations   
and Walking Study has set a goal of     encouragement. The recommendations       (TMAs), Smart Routes, regional transit   
doubling the percentage of trips made   below relate to areas not already        authorities (RTAs), and the BayState     
by bicycling and walking, at the same   covered elsewhere.                       Roads Program.                           
time reducing by 10 percent the number                                                                                    
of bicyclists and pedestrians killed    1.  Work with local communities,                                                  
and injured in traffic crashes. To      businesses, academic institutions or                                              
support this goal, Massachusetts will   other agencies and organizations to                                               
need to carry out its own statewide     sponsor and promote bicycle to work                                               
effort to make bicycling a more         days, community bicycle rides, and                                                
attractive transportation option for    other events to attract and encourage                                             
more of its people.                     new bicyclists.                                                                   

                                        2.  Produce state and local bicycle                                               
                                        maps to help riders identify safe and                                             
                                        efficient routes for bicycling to                                                 
                                        desired destinations.                                                             

                                        3.  Conduct a statewide multi-media                                               
                                        campaign promoting bicycling. This                                                
                                        might be linked to other efforts, such                                            
                                        as the share-the-road campaign.                                                   

                                        4.  Encourage designation of MHD         MHD Districts, RPAs, cities, and towns   
                                        District, regional, and local agency                                              
                                        bicycling contacts and the                                                        
                                        establishment of bicycle advisory                                                 

                                        5.  Develop best practices publications  MHD, DEM, GHSB, MDPH, Baysate Roads      
                                        covering 4E activities (education,       Program, and others                      
                                        enforcement, encouragement, and                                                   
                                        engineering,) of potential value and                                              
                                        application to state, regional, local,                                            
                                        and other agencies.                                                               

                                        6.  Develop a Clean Air/Bike-to-Transit  EOEA, Regional transit authorities       
                                        pilot program, emphasizing reduced cold  (RTAs), RPAs, TMAs, cities and towns.    
                                        starts.  Evaluate and expand as                                                   

Program Area: Transit and Intermodal Connections

OPPORTUNITY/NEED                          RECOMMENDATION                         PROPOSED AGENCIES             

There is an opportunity to increase     1.  Assess the bicycle suitability of    RTAs, all agencies who own and maintain  
both bicycle and transit use by         primary roadways leading to transit      public roads that provide links to       
improvements in three primary areas:    stations and stops and other intermodal  transit centers, Massport, and Mass      
                                        facilities, and where suitability is     Aeronautics                              
bicycle access to transit stations and  low, improve roadways to better                                                   
stops                                   accommodate bicycles.  Ensure that new                                            
bicycle parking at transit stations     roadways leading to transit stations                                              
and stops and                           and other intermodal facilities are                                               
conveyance of bicycles on transit       designed to accommodate bicycles.        RTAs and all agencies that construct,    
vehicles                                                                         own, or maintain bikeways.               
                                        2.  Ensure that all new bikeways and                                              
An increase in bicycling and transit    transit centers provide connections                                               
use will advance broader goals of the   between these facilities.  Improve       RTAs, RPAs, cities and towns             
Commonwealth, including improved air    connections between existing bikeways                                             
quality, mobility, and quality of       and transit/intermodal centers.                                                   
                                        3.  Provide/update inventories of                                                 
There are also opportunities to         bicycle parking facilities at all                                                 
improve bicycle linkage with other      transit centers and major bus stops.                                              
modes and modal centers.  These modes   Survey the numbers of bicycles parked                                             
include commuter ferries and other      at or near these facilities during peak                                           
maritime services, and                  periods of bicycle use.  Assess the                                               
airports/airlines.  Intermodal sites    demand for bicycle parking at these                                               
include park and ride lots, and         facilities based on existing use data                                             
existing and proposed intermodal        and an evaluation of potential demand.                                            
centers, such as South Station in                                                                                         
Boston.                                 4.  Install additional bicycle parking   RTAs, RPAs, local police, cities and     
                                        facilities at transit centers and major  towns                                    
                                        bus stops based on demand.  At transit                                            
                                        centers such as commuter rail and                                                 
                                        subway stations, bicycle racks should                                             
                                        be provided in a secure and convenient                                            
                                        location.  Bicycle lockers should be                                              
                                        considered especially at locations that                                           
                                        are not continuously populated, such as                                           
                                        at some suburban commuter rail stations                                           
                                        in the Boston area.  Large secured                                                
                                        bicycle parking facilities (e.g., the                                             
                                        covered, fenced, and locked bicycle                                               
                                        parking facility at Mass General                                                  
                                        Hospital in Boston) may be more                                                   
                                        appropriate where warranted.                                                      

There is an opportunity to increase     1.  Provide safe, secure, and adequate   MHD, RTAs, RPAs, Massport,               
use of alternative modes of             bicycle parking facilities at            Massachusetts Turnpike Authority, and    
transportation by improvements in       park-and-ride lots, airports, and other  others                                   
bicycle parking at intermodal           intermodal facilities.                                                            

Bicycle theft is a deterrent to         2.  Increase monitoring of parking       RTAs, RPAs, local police, cities and     
increasing intermodal bicycle use.      sites to reduce vandalism and theft.     towns                                    
                                        Locate parking facilities to increase                                             

There is an opportunity to increase     3.  Continue to increase the             Massachusetts Bay Transportation         
both bicycle and transit use by         convenience of transporting bicycles on  Authority (MBTA)                         
improvements in conveyance of bicycles  trains as was done on October 1, 1996                                             
on transit vehicles                     when the MBTA expanded the number of                                              
                                        outlets for obtaining Bikes on the T                                              
                                        permits and hours when bicycles are                                               
                                        allowed on trains.                       AMTRAK and private bus companies         

                                        4.  Increase the convenience of                                                   
                                        transporting bicycles on Amtrak trains   RTAs                                     
                                        and on private buses.                                                             

                                        5.  Increase the number of RTA buses                                              
                                        equipped with bicycle racks, using as a  Ferry and other maritime operators       
                                        model programs implemented by the                                                 
                                        Nantucket RTA and the Pioneer Valley                                              
                                        Transit Authority.                                                                

                                        6.  Increase the convenience of                                                   
                                        transporting bicycles on ferries and                                              
                                        other maritime services                                                           

                                        7.  Investigate potential adaptation of  RTAs, other transit, and ferry           
                                        existing rolling stock and other         operators                                
                                        equipment to better accommodate bicycle                                           

                                        8.  Assess bicycle/transit usage on a    Responsible agencies                     
                                        regular basis to determine how system                                             
                                        improvements can be provided.                                                     

Second Round of Public Meetings

(all meetings are held from 7:00 to 9:00 PM on the dates shown)

Worcester Tuesday, November 12 Central Mass Regional Planning Commission 20 Washington Square, Suite 300

Northampton Wednesday, November 13 Municipal Office Building (behind City Hall) Top Floor, Council Room 212 Main Street

Boston Thursday, November 14 City Hall, Room 801 (use Congress Street entrance) Government Center

Dennis Tuesday, November 19 Dennis Senior Center (downstairs meeting room) 1045 Route 134

Taunton Wednesday, November 20 Southeastern Regional Planning and Economic Development Commission 88 Broadway

Andover Thursday, November 21 West Middle School Cafeteria 100 Shawsheen Road

Pittsfield Tuesday, November 26 Berkshire County Regional Planning Commission 10 Fenn Street